What Is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad branch of computing concerned with building intelligent machines capable of performing tasks that would typically require human intelligence.
How Does Artificial Intelligence Work?
AI approaches and concepts
Less than a decade after deciphering the Nazi Cipher Machine Enigma and helping the Allies win World War II, mathematician Alan Turing changed history for the second time with a simple question: “Can machines think? ? ”
Turing’s article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950) and the subsequent Turing test established artificial intelligence’s fundamental purpose and vision.
Essentially, AI is the branch of computing that aims to answer Turing’s question with a yes. It is the attempt to recreate or simulate human intelligence in machines.
The ambitious goal of artificial intelligence has raised many questions and debates. So much so that a singular definition of the domain is generally not accept.
The Four Types Of Artificial Intelligence
A reactive machine follows the most basic principles of AI and, as the name suggests, can only use its intelligence to perceive and respond to the World in front of it. A responsive machine cannot store memory and, therefore, cannot rely on experience to make real-time decisions.
Direct perception of the World means that responsive machines are only designed for a limited number of specialized tasks. However, reducing a reactive machine’s worldview isn’t a cost-cutting measure; instead, it makes this type of AI more reliable and trustworthy – it reacts to the same stimuli every time.
A famous example of a reactive machine remains Deep Blue. IBM developed in the 1990s as a supercomputer for playing chess and defeated international grandmaster Gary Kasparov in a single game. Deep Blue was only able to identify the pieces on a chessboard and know how each one moves according to the rules of chess. Recognize each piece’s current position, and determine what would be the most logical move at that time. The computer did not follow the possible future movements of its opponent or did not attempt to move its pieces to a better position. Each turn was seen as its reality, separate from any other action done before.
Artificial intelligence with limited memory can store past data and predictions by gathering information and weighing potential decisions. Looking back into the past for clues as to what is to come. Artificial intelligence with limited memory is more complex and powerful than reactive machines.
Limited-memory AI is creat when a team continually trains a model to analyze and use new data or when an AI environment is design so that models can be traine and update automatically. There are six steps to consider when using memory-limit AI in machine learning: training data needs to be built, machine learning model needs to be built, the model needs to be capable of making predictions, the model should be able to receive human feedback, or that the input should be save as data and these steps should be repeat as a cycle.
Theory of Mind
The theory of mind is just that: theoretical. We have yet to acquire the technological and scientific skills necessary to achieve this next level of artificial intelligence.
The idea remains based on the psychological premise of understanding that other living things have thoughts and also, emotions that influence their behavior. Artificial intelligence machines would mean that artificial intelligence could understand the feelings of humans, animals, and other devices and make decisions through self-reflection and determination. Then use that information to make their own decisions. In essence, devices should be able to grasp and process in real-time the concept of ‘mind,’ fluctuations in emotions in decision-making. And also, a litany of other psychological ideas to establish a reciprocal relationship between them. Humans and intelligence artificially.
As soon as the theory of the mind can establish itself in artificial intelligence. The last step will be for the AI to become self-aware at some point in the future. This type of Artificial Intelligence has a human-level consciousness. And understands its existence in the World and its presence and emotional state. You could understand what others need. Based not only on what they are telling you but also on how they are communicating it.
Self-awareness in artificial intelligence relies on human researchers understanding the premises of consciousness. And then learning to reproduce it so that it can be integrate into machines.
How Is AI Use?
Jeremy Achin, CEO of Data Robot, addressed a lot at the Japan AI Experience in 2017. And started his talk by defining the current use of artificial intelligence as follows:
AI remains a computer system capable of acting tasks that generally require human intelligence … Many of these artificial intelligence systems use machine learning, some deep learning, and some very dull rules.”
Narrow AI surrounds us and is by far the most achievement of artificial intelligence. By focusing on performing specific tasks, Narrow AI has made many advances over the past decade that, according to Preparing for the World. “have had significant social benefits and have contribute to the country’s economic vitality.” A report was release through the Obama direction in 2016.